The benzene ring of tetraphenylethylene can rotate freely around the carbon-carbon double bond, forming a helical structure. In the field of organic light-emitting, tetraphenylethylene derivatives have strong aggregation-induced luminescence effect, high fluorescence quantum yield, easy functionalization and simple synthesis, and can be used in the design of optical devices such as high-performance organic light-emitting diodes. In the field of fluorescence sensing, tetraphenylethylene derivatives exhibit good biocompatibility, excellent light resistance, and high selectivity, making them widely used in cell imaging, ion detection, and other fields. In the field of batteries, tetraphenylethylene derivatives have good charge transport properties and can enhance the photoelectric conversion efficiency of batteries.
Figure 1. Chemical structures of tetraphenylethylene
- Luminous material: The chromophore of tetraphenylethylene derivatives is different from that of most organic compounds. Most organic chromophores emit light in solution, but the aggregated state undergoes fluorescence quenching. In contrast, tetraphenylethylene derivatives emit light in the aggregated state, but are quenched in dilute solution. Based on this principle, tetraphenylethylene derivatives can prepare luminescent materials with high fluorescence quantum yield in solid state. This luminescent material has significant advantages in thermal stability and machinability. Moreover, through the rational design of the tetraphenylethylene structure, the derivatives of tetraphenylethylene can emit fluorescence covering the visible spectral region, enhancing the saturation purity of light. Therefore, tetraphenylethylene derivatives with high solid-state luminous efficiency can be used as a light-emitting layer to obtain an organic light-emitting diode device with excellent light-emitting and undoped.
- Solar cell: Tetraphenylethylene derivatives have specific intramolecular charge transfer and aggregation-induced luminescence properties, which can increase the short-circuit current density of solar cells. The application of such materials in solid thin films of solar cells can enable the device to obtain specific spectral properties and current density enhancement effects, thereby improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells.
- Sensor: Tetraphenylethylene derivatives can be used to synthesize fluorescent probes with high selectivity and low detection limit due to their excellent luminescence properties, easy modification of functional groups, good biocompatibility and excellent light resistance. These probe molecules can be used in the detection of metal ions and explosives, and can also be specifically combined with biomolecules such as DNA and thiols to detect the content of corresponding substances in organisms. They are widely used in cell imaging, bacterial detection, drug release and other fields.
- Bingwen Zhang, Jingjing Jiang, Wenji Wang, Qin Tu, Ruijin Yu, Jinyi Wang, Mao-Sen Yuan. Tricolor fluorescence switching in the three crystal polymorphs of tetraphenylethylene modified fluorenone AIEgen [J]. Mater. Chem. Front., 2022,6, 613-622.