Energy shortage and environmental pollution are the two major problems facing human beings. The use of solar energy, a renewable and clean energy, is the key way to solve the problem. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been developed along with new energy materials. DSSC materials mainly include transparent conductive glass, TiO2 nanocrystalline film, photosensitive dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. After the photosensitive dye absorbs the sun, the excited dye molecules transfer electrons to the TiO2 nanocrystal grains. Through the electron transmission channel formed by nanocrystalline grains, electrons will be collected on the transparent conductive glass. The oxidized dye that has lost electrons returns to the ground state under the action of the reduced substance in the electrolyte. Finally, the oxidized electrolyte is reduced at the counter electrode, thereby completing the entire battery reaction process and realizing photoelectric conversion. DSSC can be made of low-cost materials, and does not require copper fine equipment to manufacture, and the cost is low. And it can be made into a soft sheet, which has high mechanical strength and does not require special protection. Therefore, DSSC has the advantages of simple process, low cost and environmental friendliness, and can be used in the construction industry, power stations, traffic lighting and other fields.
Figure 1. The structure and working principle of DSSC