Morpholinium Salts For Energy Storage & Batteries

Since the first ionic liquid was prepared in 1914, ionic liquids have not only increased in quantity, but also expanded in variety. Ionic liquids are salts composed of organic cations and inorganic or organic anions that are liquid at or near room temperature, often called room temperature ionic liquids, or room temperature molten salts. When the organic cation is morpholinium, the ionic liquid is called morpholinium salt ionic liquid. Morpholinium salt ionic liquid with ideal characteristics, has been actively studied at home and abroad in recent years, and it has become a kind of alternative energy material attracting much attention. Figure 1 shows the general structure of morpholinium salt ionic liquids. Furthermore, morpholinium salt ionic liquid is characterized by its designability in structure. Morpholinium salt ionic liquid can be designed as functional ionic liquid containing various groups, so that it not only has the properties of ordinary ionic liquid, but also contains special groups to make the ionic liquid has special properties.

Structure of morpholinium salt ionic liquids.Figure 1. Structure of morpholinium salt ionic liquids.


When the substituents are different, the synthesis process of morpholinium salt ionic liquid will be different. For example, several kinds of morpholinium salt ionic liquids have been synthesized by a research team at room temperature, introducing allyl functional groups into the structures. In addition, a team synthesized a morpholinium salt ionic liquid by the reaction of n-methyl morpholine, n-ethyl morpholine and different substituent groups. In this method, the raw material is dissolved and heated, and the reaction at room temperature is reduced from two days to two hours. At the same time, the yield is increased from 58% to 85%, and a very pure product can be obtained without too much operation.


  • Supercapacitor: Supercapacitor is a new energy device, which has the advantages of small volume, large capacity, fast charging speed, long cycle life and others. It is a new, efficient and practical energy storage device. Therefore, supercapacitor is widely used in mobile communication devices, computers and hybrid power of electric vehicles. Supercapacitor working electrolytes are mainly have the shortage of flammable and they release combustible gas in the charging and discharging process, resulting in serious safety problem. However, gel polymer composite electrolyte membrane can be prepared by morpholinium salt ionic liquid, which can greatly improve the performance and safety of supercapacitor.
  • Solar cell: Solar cells, powered by light energy, have the characteristic of green environmental protection, and they are indispensable new energy devices for human sustainable development. The photo-responsive nano TiO2 in the composition of solar cells will greatly affect its performance. Morpholinium salt ionic liquid has high thermal stability and good solubility of organic and inorganic matter. It can be used as a solvent for the preparation of nano TiO2. For example, a research team used N-methyl-N-4-nitrophenylmorpholine hydrochloride ionic liquid as the medium to prepare rutile nano TiO2 by low-temperature hydrolysis. This method is simple to operate and avoids high temperature and high pressure.

Experimental procedure used to prepare TiO2Figure 2. Experimental procedure used to prepare TiO2.


  1. Shen J, Shi M, Yan B, et al. Ionic liquid-assisted one-step hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2-reduced graphene oxide composites[J]. Nano Research, 2011, 4(8):795-806.
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