The electrocrystallization process refers to the whole process from the emergence of free atoms of cations in the cathode discharge to form crystalline nuclei, to the formation of crystals and the formation of a metal layer on the surface of the cathode. In the electrocrystallization process, the growth mode and process of the new crystal nucleus, and the surface state of the base metal will have a great impact on the structure (Such as the thickness of the deposited layer, the size of the crystal grain, the morphology of the texture, etc.) and performance of the deposited layer. The supporting electrolyte generally refers to an electrolyte that can increase the conductivity of the solution, and does not participate in the reaction itself. The inert supporting electrolyte can be an inorganic salt, an inorganic acid or a buffer. In the process of electrocrystallization, the supporting electrolyte system has a great influence on the nucleation and growth of crystal grains. Different ions have different effects on the electrodeposition process of metals, such as affecting the precipitation rate of the metal, the location of the precipitation, and the crystallization method of the metal. Electrocrystallization is an important method for preparing semiconductor materials. The choice of electrocrystallization supporting electrolyte is very important. The electrolyte should be a solution with high stability, good solubility and wide electrochemical window. Many semiconductor thin film materials (Si, Ge, Te, Se, etc.) need to be prepared by electrocrystallization in a supporting electrolyte. The common structure of this type of electrolyte is ammonium salt. Therefore, this type of electrolyte can be widely used in the preparation of semiconductor materials.
Figure 1. Preparation of Molecular Conductors by Electrocrystallization